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Pressure and volume stimuli of blood flow through the fetal heart are important determinants of the development of fetal heart and circulation during the second and third trimesters[ 1 ].

In order to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality, an early diagnosis of cf 88 atualizada pdf file fetal congenital heart disease CHD in the parturients who are at an increased risk of CHD is imperative, particularly for those with a family history of CHD[ 2 ].

Early diagnosis of treatable CHDs may improve fetal intervention outcomes[ 4 ], allowing ventricular growth and angiogenesis for fetus with semilunar valve stenosis for successful adaptation to extrauterine life[ 5 ].

Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

Advanced imaging technology and equipment have made an accurate diagnosis of most fetal CHDs possible[ 6 ]. Among them, echocardiography is a reliable means for prenatal diagnosis cf 88 atualizada pdf file a wide spectrum of CHDs[ 3 ].

At present, diagnosis of CHDs at midgestation week gestation has become feasible in almost all situations[ 7 ].

Prenatal interventions for structural CHDs are now plausible with high rates of technical success at midpregnancy[ 8 ].


Moreover, fetuses with hypoplasia of the tricuspid valve annulus seem to be good candidates for pulmonary valve intervention, allowing sufficient right heart growth[ 6 ]. Minimal invasiveness percutaneous access, only one cardiac puncture, and placental avoidance and free from complications fetal bradycardia, effusions and thrombus are regarded as an ideal procedure[ 10 ].


Fetal Cardiac Intervention Intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty Severe AS is associated with left ventricular outflow obstruction and may lead to irreversible left cf 88 atualizada pdf file dysfunction secondary to volume overload with right heart failure and hydrops fetalis[ 11 ].

It may develop into HLHS prenatally and is associated with poor postnatal survival if left untreated in the uterus[ 12 ]. Retrograde flow in the transverse aortic arch, severe left ventricular dysfunction, monophasic and short mitral valve inflow and left-to-right flow across the foramen ovale can be determinants of AS progression into HLHS, in which very few cf 88 atualizada pdf file of left heart growth and function can be available for a biventricular outcome[ 13 ].

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Clinical observations also confirmed pre- and postnatal evolution of HLHS were associated cf 88 atualizada pdf file not only prenatal critical AS, but also endocardial fibroelastosis of the left ventricle[ 14 ]. By echocardiography, endocardial fibroelastosis is also implicated in post-interventional outcomes and postnatal heart growth[ 15 ].

The timing of intervention should be on an urgent basis because of the potential for cf 88 atualizada pdf file progression into left ventricular growth failure in fetuses[ 16 ]. The first intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty was reported in for the treatment of critical AS in two fetuses[ 12 ].

However, one died intrauterine post-intervention and the other died postnatally. The problem encountered during the maneuver was difficulty of needle withdrawal after the access to the fetal heart, which was afterwards resolved by the utilization of a stillette needle.

Further observations by echocardiography revealed left heart growth arrest in unsuccessful or declined cases, but ongoing left heart growth in successful cases. Resumed left heart growth leading to a biventricular circulation at birth was observed in three babies[ 16 ]. Recently, Goldstein et al.

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  • Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

With the aid of a micromanometer cf 88 atualizada pdf file sensor 3 cm from the tip, it was directed into the left ventricle and across the severely stenotic aortic valve.

Immediate aortic pressure drop was seen after the procedure. This technique allows several potential advantages over conventional procedures in continuous monitoring of pressure waveforms, improvement of intraprocedural fetal hemodynamic monitoring and responsiveness to resuscitation.

Intrauterine aortic valvuloplasty for AS is technically feasible.

Success depends on a series of predictive cf 88 atualizada pdf file, including cardiac structural changes severe endocardial fibroelastosisdevices available angle of cannula entry, cannula designs and catheter and wire configurationsfetal positioning, ultrasound imaging, maneuver sophistications and post-interventional care, etc.

In addition, quick maneuvers may minimize the progressive fetal bradycardia. The mortality and morbidity of fetal AS were mainly due to technical errors and due to cf 88 atualizada pdf file degree of the hemodynamic effects of the stenosis and left ventricular adaptation, development and function during fetal life[ 19 ].

However, fetal aortic valvuloplasty was not a definitive solution for fetal AS.