The Decline of the Ottoman Empire: Part 3 Nationalism. In Part 1 of this series, we looked at what impact political and economic problems had. Throughout Islamic history, empires rose and fell for years. The Umayyads, Abbasids, Mamluks, Mughals, and Ottomans are just some of. As a result, the prosperity of the Middle Eastern provinces declined. The Ottoman economy was disrupted by inflation, caused by the influx of precious metals into Europe from the Americas and by an increasing imbalance of trade between East and West. Inflation also weakened the traditional industries and trades.


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The year old tradition of sultans being the powerful, resourceful, and able leaders of the Ottoman State was over. All Ottoman sultans led their armies into battle and saw that as a central aspect to their job.

The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

Despite their inexperience and incompetence, Ottoman sultans were still officially in charge of the empire. Thus, without education and knowledge of how to run an empire, they still had the power to direct the government.

The result decline of the ottoman empire this was a long period of complete administrative instability. Viziers ministers were appointed and fired at the whim of the sultan, leading to great difficulty in policies ever being put into place.

InMahmud resumed the war, hoping to recover his losses, but he died at the time news was on its way to Constantinople that the Empire's army had been signally defeated at Nezib by an Egyptian army led by Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message In his time the decline of the ottoman empire situation of the Empire was dire, and certain social classes had long been oppressed by burdensome taxes. A Firman of 22 February abolished the vexatious charges which public functionaries, when traversing the provinces, had long been accustomed to take from the inhabitants.

Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia

By the same edict all collection of money, except for the two regular half-yearly periods, was denounced as an abuse. Therefore, those acts of oppression are at once contrary to the will of God, and to my imperial orders.


Many other financial improvements were effected. By another important series of measures, the decline of the ottoman empire government was simplified and strengthened, and a large number of sinecure offices were abolished. Sultan Mahmud II gave a valuable personal example of good sense and economy, organised the imperial household, suppressed all titles without duties and eliminated all the positions of salaried officials without functions.

Previous to the first of the firmans, the property of all persons banished or condemned to death was forfeited to decline of the ottoman empire crown, which kept a sordid motive for acts of cruelty in perpetual operation, besides encouraging a host of vile Delators.

Inthe tributary principalities of Serbia and Montenegroand the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia decline of the ottoman empire, unilaterally declared their independence from the empire.

Following the Russo-Turkish War —the empire granted independence to all three belligerent nations. Bulgaria also achieved virtual independence[ citation needed ] as the Principality of Bulgaria ; its volunteers had participated in the Russo-Turkish War on the side of the rebelling nations.

The government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalisation of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law [6] and guilds with modern factories. The other problem came from the Spanish Empire in the Americas that was bringing a huge influx of gold and silver to Europe.

Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

This inflation, combined with the other factors hurting the empire's revenues, led to serious economic decline. That economic decline hurt the empire militarily in two ways that fed back into further economic decline.


Ottoman siegesVienna withstood several sieges by the Ottoman Turks, most notably in From to it fought the armies of the Holy League in a disastrous war that culminated in the Treaty of Carlowitz In —11 it fought Decline of the ottoman empire again, and at the Treaty of the Pruth it regained some territories previously lost.

By the Ottomans had lost all of their possessions on the northern coast of the Black Sea, from the Romanian principalities decline of the ottoman empire the Caucasus, including Bessarabiasouthern Ukraineand the Crimean Peninsula the soldiers of which had provided the strongest element in the Ottoman army during the 17th century.

Ottoman Empire - The decline of the Ottoman Empire, – |

In the later Ottoman period, however, a new factor of decline was added: Those individuals took more or less permanent control of large areas, creating a situation that in many ways resembled European feudalism much more than the traditional Ottoman timar system ever did.

In the Balkans and Anatolia local rulers solidified their positions by taking advantage of currents of local nationalism that were arising among the Balkan Christians. The notables formed private armies of mercenaries and slaves, which they sometimes used to provide important contributions to the Ottoman armies in return for recognition of their autonomy by the sultans.

Those rulers were able to exercise almost complete authority, collecting taxes for themselves and sending only nominal payments to the Ottoman decline of the ottoman empire, thus further decline of the ottoman empire its problems.

The central government maintained its position when it could by playing off the local rebels against each other, using the leverage of Ottoman support to its own advantage and securing considerable payments of cash and military contributions when needed.

The treasury, therefore, did not suffer as much from those provincial revolts as might be imagined, but the revolts did disrupt the established food supplies of the empire and caused large-scale famines to starve the major cities on a regular basis.


Britain then intervened, constraining Muhammad Ali to withdraw from Anatolia to Syria.