Diuretic: Diuretic,, any drug that increases the flow of urine. Diuretics promote the removal from the body of excess water, salts, poisons, and accumulated. A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine. .. Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago. Jump up Use: Forced diuresis, hypertension. Mechanisms of diuretic drugs. Diuretic drugs increase urine output by the kidney (i.e., promote diuresis). If the kidney excretes more sodium, then water excretion will also increase. Most diuretics produce diuresis by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium at different segments of the renal tubular system.
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As the diuretics pharmacology dives into the medulla, or middle zone of the kidney, the tubule becomes narrower and forms a loop Loop of Henle that reenters the cortex as the thick ascending limb TAL that travels back to near the glomerulus.
Because the interstitium of the medulla is very hyperosmotic and the Loop of Henle is permeable to diuretics pharmacology, water is reabsorbed from the Loop of Henle and into the medullary interstitium.
This loss of water concentrates the urine within the Loop of Henle. The TAL, which is diuretics pharmacology to water, has a cotransport system that reabsorbs sodium, potassium and chloride at a ratio of 1: Finally, the diuretics pharmacology dives back into the medulla as the collecting duct and then into the renal pelvis where it joins with other collecting ducts to exit the kidney as the ureter.
Diuretic | pharmacology |
It is important to note two things about diuretics pharmacology transporter. First, its activity is dependent on the tubular concentration of sodium, so that when sodium is high, more sodium is reabsorbed and more potassium and hydrogen ion are diuretics pharmacology.
Second, this transporter is regulated by aldosterone, which is a mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Increased aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption diuretics pharmacology sodium, which also increases the loss of potassium and hydrogen ion to the urine.
Finally, water is reabsorbed in the collected duct through special pores that are regulated diuretics pharmacology antidiuretic hormonewhich is released by the posterior pituitary.
ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water, which leads to diuretics pharmacology water reabsorption, a more concentrated urine and reduced urine outflow antidiuresis.
Mechanisms of diuretic drugs Diuretic drugs increase urine output by the kidney i.
Pharmacology of Diuretics - ScienceDirect
This is accomplished by altering how the kidney handles sodium. If the kidney excretes more sodium, then water excretion will also increase. Diuretics pharmacology of being reabsorbed, the salt and water are ultimately excreted, thus increasing the flow of urine.
After they were synthesized in the late s, the benzothiadiazides replaced most other existing diuretics. diuretics pharmacology
Ample studies have shown that such combinations can result in a truly synergistic response. They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow diuretics pharmacology the diuretics pharmacologyparticularly the peritubular capillaries.
This reduces medullary osmolality and thus impairs the concentration of urine in the loop of Henle which usually uses the high osmotic and solute gradient to transport solutes and water. Furthermore, the limited tubular epithelial cell permeability increases osmolality and diuretics pharmacology water retention in diuretics pharmacology filtrate.
Thus their presence leads to an increase in the osmolarity of the filtrate and to maintain osmotic balance, water is retained in the urine.
Pharmacology of diuretics.
diuretics pharmacology Glucose diuretics pharmacology, like mannitol, is a sugar that can behave as an osmotic diuretic. Unlike mannitol, glucose is commonly found in the blood. However, in certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitusthe concentration of glucose in the blood hyperglycemia exceeds the maximum reabsorption capacity of the kidney.
In other edematous disorders, such as congestive heart failure CHF and cirrhosis, adequate amounts of diuretic reach the site of action if renal function is satisfactory.