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Maximum share for imports By encouraging amendment energie aus holz the biodiesel standard, the EU would ensure that the maximum proportion of its biodiesel consumption is met from imports.

However, much of the processing is likely to continue to take place in the Union. By removing all tariffs on bioethanol, the EU would ensure that the maximum share of its bioethanol consumption is met from imports.

The Commission believes that bioethanol made from agricultural crops in Europe will not be able to compete on price with energie aus holz made from sugar cane from tropical countries.

There would be no domestic bioethanol industry.

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For biodiesel, this approach has merit. It would enable both EU producers and developing countries to benefit, in a balanced way, from the growth of biofuel consumption energie aus holz the EU. It is an energie aus holz response to the limits on expansion of rape production in the EU. An EU industry would continue to exist.

But this strategy would not address the serious concerns that the present expansion of vegetable oil production — such as palm oil and soya — in developing countries could be responsible for energie aus holz of natural habitats and deforestation and that increased demand from the EU could translate energie aus holz an increased rate of deforestation.

If this is true, it would be an important factor to set against the greenhouse gas emission reductions that the increased use of biofuels would deliver. If such doubts cannot be removed, public support for biofuels will be undermined.

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For bioethanol, this is not a good approach for the EU to follow. However, there will be no rural development energie aus holz for Europe.

And the security of supply benefits will be less, because Europe will not have the advantage of developing a new domestic fuel source. If there is no prospect of domestic involvement in the production of bioethanol, it is likely that many of them will focus their efforts on biodiesel instead — eroding the market into which developing countries hope to sell.

Finally, if the least developed countries are not able to compete on price on the energie aus holz sugar market, there is no reason to believe that they energie aus holz be able to do so on the world bioethanol market if trade is made completely free.

Environmental concerns are also raised about the cultivation of sugar cane for bioethanol. Against this, it is argued that most bioethanol comes and will continue to come from land that has been under cultivation for a long time.


Balanced approach The Commission believes that an intermediate approach would avoid energie aus holz disadvantages of the first two options. This approach should have five elements: The EU must respect the interests of domestic producers and EU trading partners, within the context of rising demand for biofuels[53]; iv address the issue of energie aus holz the biofuels directive so that only biofuels whose cultivation complies with minimum sustainability standards count towards its targets; v support developing countries in the production of biofuels.

The system of certificates would need to apply in a non-discriminatory way to domestically produced biofuels and imports.

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In particular, it would need to be non-discriminatory in relation to the requirements of the World Trade Organisation. It would need to be energie aus holz in line with other initiatives for certification of agricultural and forestry produce and could require EU support in its introduction.

The potential impact on developing countries would be taken energie aus holz consideration before any system of energie aus holz is introduced. The Commission estimates that under this approach: It could contribute in specific countries, as in the EU but often in more critical situations, to greater energy security and access to energy, improved foreign exchange and trade balances, economic development and employment in rural regions, and environmental benefits.

To the extent that the development of biofuel consumption will exert downward pressure on the global oil price, consumption in developing countries will contribute in the same way that European consumption does.

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EU development policy, as well as other EU policies such as research and energy and the clean development mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, offers a number of instruments that can energie aus holz used. The positive energie aus holz negative impacts of cash crops for biofuels on food production and food security have been the subject of extensive discussion.

The costs and benefits depend on the site, the way the crop is produced and how it is integrated in the local production system.