Some Philosophical Prehistory of General Relativity 3. Howard Stein, Columbia University. Indistinguishable Space-Times and the Fundamental Group Cambridge Core - Theoretical Physics and Mathematical Physics - Foundations of Space and Time - edited by Jeff Murugan. Foundations of Space–Time Theories. JOHN , CLARK N. GLYMOR AND JOHN J. STACHEL, EDITORS. Terms and Conditions: You may use the.


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  • Foundations of Space-Time Theories : Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science : U of M
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Later chapters focus more directly on the opportunities now available to begin to answer the 11 questions on the nature, origin and makeup of our universe. For it is no less than, and in many ways more than, the foundations of space and time of the fundamental structure of known matter.

At the beginning of the 20th century, physics was very different from today.


The classical laws of that time foundations of space and time one to predict, given the configuration of matter and force fields at one time, the configurations at all later times.

The modern 20th century laws of physics go well beyond simple extrapolation of known conditions to the future. They describe not only how things move, but also what sorts of things there can and cannot be.

Foundations of Space-Time Theories : Michael Friedman :

The first theory of the new type was the mathematical atomic model proposed by Niels Bohr in But Bohr postulated that only certain orbits of definite size and shape could actually occur—the orbits are quantized.

With this idea it became possible to explain why all systems with one electron orbiting one proton have exactly the same properties, and to calculate those properties. Thus, the universal properties of the substance called hydrogen could be explained.

The existence of such a substance, with all its properties, is a consequence of the allowed quantum solutions for the interactions between a proton and an electron. Later physicists, including Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrodinger, and Paul Dirac, produced a framework that corrected these problems for the dynamics of quantized systems.

The new quantum mechanics of simple electrical forces between elementary electrons and nuclei could explain the main Foundations of space and time 17 Foundations of space and time Cite Suggested Citation: Matter, Space, and Time. Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos: Eleven Science Questions for the New Century.

The National Academies Press. The mature form of the theory, unifying both electrodynamics and quantum mechanics, is called quantum electrodynamics, or QED for short.

Foundations of Space-Time Theories : Relativistic Physics and Philosophy of Science

According foundations of space and time this theory, the electrical and magnetic forces and energy are carried by photons, which are quantum excitations of the electromagnetic fields see Box 2.

Despite such revolutionary breakthroughs, major challenges remained. There were still subtle internal difficulties within QED. All the many successful applications of QED were based on solving the equations in an approximate way.

When physicists tried to solve the equations more precisely, they ran into great difficulties.

Some corrections seemed to be infinite! Thus, although QED was spectacularly successful at a practical level, it was completely unsatisfactory from a logical point of view, because it required setting infinite quantities to zero. This mathematically dubious procedure amounted to ignoring a physical effect called quantum fluctuations, the quantum mechanical corrections to the foundations of space and time.

Eventually it was recognized that the problem lay in the interpretation of the foundations of space and time corrections, not just in how they affected the particle processes but also in how they altered the concept of empty space or the vacuum.

Since these effects have a role to play later in this story, it is worth taking a little time here to discuss them. All subsequent particle theories are built to include QED, and are likewise field theories.