Quę quidem possessiones, iura et bona sunt hęc. In primis omnes possessiones, bona et iura, quę et quas acquisivit ordini quondam Templi, sive ex. See also Iudicium de actu ponendo. Iura et bona Rights and values (goods) Declaration of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on Euthanasia . euthanasia, or willful suicide" (Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, no. 27). More recently, the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the.


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The Pope addressed this iura et bona in an address to a group of physicians who were in Rome in March precisely to discuss it. I should like particularly to underline how the administration of water and food, even when provided by artificial means, always represents a natural means of preserving life, not a medical act.

Translation of "Iura et bona" in English

Its iura et bona, furthermore, should be considered, in principle, ordinary and proportionate, and as such morally obligatory, insofar as and until it is seen to have attained its proper finality, which in the present case consists in providing nourishment to the patient and alleviation of his suffering.

The obligation to provide the "normal care due to the sick in such cases" 1 includes, in fact, the use iura et bona nutrition and hydration 2. The evaluation of probabilities, founded on waning hopes for recovery when the vegetative state is prolonged beyond a year, cannot ethically justify the cessation or interruption of minimal care for the patient, including nutrition and hydration.

Death by starvation or dehydration is, in fact, the only possible outcome as a result of their withdrawal. In this sense it ends up becoming, if done knowingly and willingly, true and proper euthanasia by omission.

In this regard, I recall what I wrote in the Encyclical Evangelium Vitae making it clear that "by euthanasia in the true and proper sense must be understood an action or iura et bona which by its very nature and intention brings about death, with the purpose of eliminating all pain"; such an act is always "a serious iura et bona of the law of God, since it is the iura et bona and morally unacceptable killing of a human person" n.

Food and water are natural means of sustaining life, not medical acts, even if delivered artificially. Nutrition and hydration are ordinary and proportionate means of care.

Food and water are morally obligatory unless or until they cannot achieve their finality, which is providing nutrition and hydrating and alleviating suffering.

The length of time they are, or will be, used is not grounds for withholding or withdrawing artificially delivered nutrition and hydration. If the result of withholding or withdrawing nutrition and hydration is death by starvation and dehydration, as opposed to an undying disease or dysfunction, it is gravely immorally.

Acts of Alexander III King of Scots - Cynthia J Neville - Google Livros

In summary, nutrition and hydration, like bathing and changing the patient's position to avoid bedsores, is ordinary care that is owed iura et bona the patient. This is true even if it is delivered artificially, as when a baby is bottle-fed or a sick person is tube-fed.

Nutrition and hydration may iura et bona be discontinued when they cannot achieve their natural purposes, such as when the body can no longer process them, or, when during the death process they would only prolong the person's suffering.

As for those who profess other religions, many will agree with us that faith in God the Creator, Provider and Lord of life - if they share this belief - confers a lofty dignity upon every human person and guarantees respect for him or her.

Declaration on Euthanasia - May 5,

It is hoped that this Declaration will meet with the approval of many people of good will, who, philosophical or ideological differences notwithstanding, have nevertheless a lively awareness of the rights of the human person.

These rights have often, in fact, been proclaimed in recent years through declarations issued by International Congresses[3]; and since it is a question here of fundamental rights inherent iura et bona every human person, it is obviously wrong to have recourse to arguments from political pluralism or religious freedom in order to deny the universal value of those rights.

Most people regard life as something sacred and hold that no one may dispose of it at iura et bona, but believers see in life something greater, namely, a gift of God's love, which they are called upon to preserve and make fruitful. And it is this latter consideration that gives rise to the following consequences: No one can make an attempt on the life of an innocent person without opposing God's love for that person, without violating a iura et bona right, and therefore without committing a crime of the utmost gravity.

End-of-Life Decisions

Everyone has the duty to lead his or her life in accordance with God's plan. That life is entrusted to the individual as a good that must bear fruit already here on earth, but that finds its full perfection only in eternal life.

Intentionally causing one's iura et bona death, or suicide, is therefore equally as wrong as murder; such an action on the part of a person is to be considered as a rejection of God's sovereignty and loving plan.

Furthermore, suicide is also often a refusal of love for self, the denial iura et bona a natural instinct to live, a flight from the duties of justice and charity owed to one's neighbor, to various communities or to the whole of society - although, as is generally recognized, at times there are psychological factors present that can diminish responsibility or even completely remove it.

However, one must clearly distinguish suicide from that sacrifice of one's life whereby for a higher cause, such as God's glory, the salvation of souls or the service of one's brethren, a person offers his or her own life or puts it in danger cf.

Etymologically speaking, in ancient times Euthanasia meant an easy death without severe suffering. Today one no longer thinks of this original meaning of the word, but rather of some intervention of medicine whereby the suffering of sickness or of the final agony are reduced, sometimes also with the danger of suppressing life prematurely.

Ultimately, the word Euthanasia is used in a more particular sense to mean "mercy iura et bona for the purpose of putting an end to extreme suffering, or having abnormal babies, the mentally ill or the incurably sick from the prolongation, perhaps for many years of a miserable life, iura et bona could impose too heavy a burden on their families or on society.

It is, therefore, necessary to state clearly in what sense the word is used in the present document.