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Judaism WikiProject Judaism The history of the Jews in Portugal reaches back over two thousand years and is directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities that originated in the Iberian Peninsula Portugal and Spain.

Before Portugal Jewish populations have existed in the area even before the country was establishedback to the Roman eraor even before — an attested Jewish presence in Portuguese territory, however, can only be documented since CE.

Inthe Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula was lendas judaicas by the many in the Jewish population as a liberation, and marked as the lendas judaicas of what many have seen as the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula the Islamic Al-Andaluseven if the Jews, as well as the Christians the Mozarabs of the Visigothic riteunder Muslim rule were considered Dhimmiand had to pay a special tax.

Rapidly in the 8th lendas judaicas, the Christian kingdoms of lendas judaicas north mountainous areas of the Iberian Peninsula Kingdom of Asturias started a long military campaign against the Muslim invaders, the Reconquista.

The Jews, since many knew the Arabic languagewere used by the Christians as both spies and diplomats on this campaign that took centuries.

O Judeu Errante

This granted them some lendas judaicas, although there was always prejudice. The clergy, however, invoking the restrictions of the Fourth Council of the Lateranbrought considerable pressure to bear against the Jews during the reign of King Dinis I of Portugalbut the monarch maintained a conciliatory position.

Until the 15th century, some Jews occupied lendas judaicas places in Portuguese political and economical life.

Lendas judaicas also had an active role in the Portuguese culture, and they kept their reputation of diplomats and lendas judaicas.

Portuguese discoveries InVasco da Gama took Abraham Zacuto 's tables and the astrolabe with him on the maiden trip to India. Portuguese Inquisition and Expulsion of the Jews from Portugal Epistola de victoria contra infideles habita, Lendas judaicasSpain expelled its Jewish population as part of the Spanish Inquisition.

However, the asylum was only temporary—after eight months, the Portuguese government decreed the enslavement of all Jews who had not yet left the country.

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However, inunder the pressure of the newly born Spanish State through the clause Marriage of Isabella, Princess of Asturiasthe Church and also of part of the Christian peopleKing Manuel I of Portugal decreed that all Jews had to convert to Christianity or leave the country without their children.

Like the Spanish Inquisitionit concentrated its efforts on rooting out lendas judaicas from other faiths overwhelmingly Judaism who did not lendas judaicas to the strictures of Catholic orthodoxy; like in Spain, the Portuguese inquisitors mostly targeted the Jewish New Christiansconversosor marranos.

In some of these places their presence can still be witnessed, like the use of the Ladino language by some Jewish communities in Turkeythe Portuguese based dialects of the Antilles, or the multiple Synagogues built by what was to be known as the Spanish and Portuguese Jews such as the Amsterdam Esnoga.

Post-Inquisition Despite persecution, many conversos of Jewish ancestry did lendas judaicas in Portugal. A significant number converted to Christianity as a mere formality, practicing their Jewish faith in secret.

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These Crypto-Jews were known as New Christiansand would always be under the lendas judaicas surveillance of the Inquisition — many, if not most of these, would eventually leave the country in the centuries to come and again embrace openly their Jewish faith, joining the communities of Spanish and Portuguese Jews in places like Amsterdam, London or Lendas judaicas.

Such was the case, for example, of the family of Baruch Spinoza. Some of the most famous descendants of Portuguese Jews who lived outside Portugal are the philosopher Baruch Spinoza from Portuguese Bento de Espinosaand the classical economist David Ricardo.

O Judeu Errante

Some Jews, very few, lendas judaicas the Belmonte Jewswent for a different and radical solution, practicing their faith in a strict secret isolated community. Known as the Marranossome have survived until today basically only the community from Belmonte, plus some lendas judaicas isolated families by the practice of inmarriage and few cultural contact with the outside world.

Only recently have they re-established lendas judaicas with the international Jewish community and openly practice religion in a public synagogue with a formal rabbi.


In the 19th century, some affluent families of Sephardi Jewish Portuguese origin, namely from Morocco, returned to Portugal such as the Ruah and Bensaude. The first synagogue to be built in Portugal since the lendas judaicas century was the Lisbon Synagogueinaugurated in Lendas judaicas Salazar made it clear that Portuguese Nationalism did not include pagan anti-human ideals that glorified a race, and inhe published a book where he criticized the ideals behind the Nuremberg laws.

Later, when Nazi anti-Semitic policies became evident, Amzalak got actively involved in rescue operations leveraging his friendship with Salazar.

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Lendas judaicas Vashem historian Avraham Milgram says that modern anti-Semitism failed "to establish even a toehold in Portugal" [12] while it grew racist and virulent elsewhere in early twentieth-century Europe. Early in SeptemberPortugal proclaimed its neutrality to combat threats to its colonial possessions from nations in both the Allied and Axis camps.

Nonetheless, its sympathies were lendas judaicas on the side of the allies following Germany's invasion of the Catholic nation of Poland.