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Because light can travel through a vacuum, it was assumed that even a vacuum must be filled with aether.

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Because the speed of light is so great, and because material bodies pass through the michelson morley deneyi without obvious friction or drag, it was assumed to have a highly unusual combination of properties.

Designing experiments to test the properties of the aether was a high priority of 19th century physics.

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The Earth is in motion, so two main possibilities were considered: Eventually, Fresnel's idea of an almost stationary aether was preferred because it appeared to be confirmed michelson morley deneyi the Fizeau experiment and the aberration of star light. A depiction of michelson morley deneyi concept of the "aether wind" According to the stationary and the partially-dragged aether hypotheses, Earth and the aether are in relative motion, implying that a so-called "aether wind" Fig.

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Although it would be possible, in theory, for the Earth's motion to match that of the aether at one moment in time, it was not possible for the Earth to remain at rest with respect to the aether at all michelson morley deneyi, because of the variation in both the direction and the speed of the motion.

At any given point on the Earth's surface, the magnitude and direction of the wind would vary with time of day and season. By analyzing the return speed of light in different directions at various different times, it was thought to be possible to measure the motion of the Earth relative to the aether.

The expected relative difference in the measured speed of light was quite small, michelson morley deneyi that the velocity of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun has a magnitude of about one hundredth of one percent of the speed of light.


A number of physicists therefore attempted to make measurements of indirect first-order effects not of the speed of light itself, but of variations in the speed michelson morley deneyi light see First order aether-drift experiments.

The Hoek experimentfor example, was intended to detect interferometric fringe shifts michelson morley deneyi to speed differences of oppositely propagating light waves through water at rest.

The results of such experiments were all negative.

Partial aether-dragging would thwart attempts to measure any first order change in the speed of light. Michelson morley deneyi pointed out by Maxwellonly experimental arrangements capable of measuring second order effects would have any hope of detecting aether drift, i.

Although ultimately it proved incapable of distinguishing between differing theories of aether-dragging, its construction provided important lessons for the design of Michelson and Morley's instrument.

The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether Michelson had a solution to the problem of how to construct a device sufficiently accurate to detect aether flow. Inwhile teaching at his alma mater, michelson morley deneyi United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Michelson conducted his first known light speed experiments as michelson morley deneyi part of a classroom demonstration.

Inhe left active U.

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Naval service while in Germany concluding his studies. In that year, Michelson used a prototype experimental device to make several more measurements. The device he designed, later known as a Michelson interferometersent yellow light from a sodium flame for alignmentor white light for the actual observationsthrough a half-silvered mirror that was used to split it into two beams traveling at right angles to one another.

After leaving the splitter, the beams traveled out to the ends of long arms where they were reflected michelson morley deneyi into the middle by small mirrors. They then recombined michelson morley deneyi the far side of the splitter in an eyepiece, producing a pattern of constructive and destructive interference whose transverse displacement would depend on the relative time it takes light to transit the longitudinal vs.

If the Earth is traveling through an aether medium, a beam reflecting back and forth parallel to the flow of aether would take longer than a beam reflecting perpendicular to the aether because the time gained from traveling downwind is less than that lost traveling upwind.


Michelson expected that the Earth's motion would produce a fringe shift equal to 0.