Para a harmonia social e vitalidade cultural torna -se um dos factores chave do sucesso económico de uma cidade” (Nova Carta de Atenas, ). Agro-Velho, historically and popularly known as Nova Póvoa, is one of the eleven officially . Jump up ^ Amorim, Manuel . "A Influência da Carta de Atenas na Póvoa de Varzim - três fragmentos urbanos, três casos de estudo" (PDF). Erickson, Paul A. y Murphy, Liam D. A history of Da antiga à nova Carta de Atenas − em busca de um paradigma espacial de sustentabilidade.


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In any case, it is fair to acknowledge that a visit to Guanajuato tends to please the visitor in general, although some drawbacks according to the tourist perceptions include accessibility, security in the alleys, trash disposal and vehicular traffic issues.

It is pertinent to mention that gentrification has occurred as in most tourist destinations and that a vivid nightlife is also appreciated due to a numerous offer of bars and clubs. However, the actual access to the historic nucleus is landmarked by a roundabout displaying sculptures of miners.

Figure 3 Figure 3. Nova carta de atenas 2003 sculptural work becomes highly important from the point of view of this research.

Despite the actual difficulties of nova carta de atenas 2003 mining life, the workers are portrayed as healthy and powerful.

All the problems related historically to social wellbeing, environmental challenges and also the current urban issues become erased by the symbol of the miners. The resumed data and comments expressed in this section allow to state that historic cities tend to create new social constructions in the imaginary realm.

GREC: Dades de Recerca (URV)

TOU past is compensated by the creation of an illusion narrative, while denying the African historic and contemporary presence.

This might be explained by the overwhelming desire of belonging to the nova carta de atenas 2003 discourse, equally African negative, where Mexico was built by the mixture of Spanish and Pre-Hispanic cultures.

Another romantic ideal relates to the supposed unmatched beauty of the city.

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Indeed, Guanajuato possesses more than enough landscapes and architectural beauty as to belong to the UNESCO Heritage List, but such statements are also indeed excessive. Nova carta de atenas 2003 kind of affirmation has two components, because even when it can be understood as just excessive pride, it also aids in the status quo of the city by convincing the locals about a far from true ideality of the social fabric and urban system.

Actually, one of the unsolved historic issues still remaining is related to the pollution in the river which can be proved by visiting the not vaulted sections. This way, a political bias could be implied in such a fake perfection discourse. Finally, the complex mining nova carta de atenas 2003 and present is also highly symbolized, depriving the discourse from any painful memory or fact.

Just to complete the overview, Guanajuato was the scenario to some of the most significant battles during the Mexican War of Independence.

Guanajuato and Cervantes, its Invited Symbol In Guanajuato was declared America's Cervantes City thanks to its contribution to the knowledge and dissemination of Cervantes's literary works.

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How a Spanish writer and his characters, especially the Quijote became associated to this city represents a theming process, but also a symbolic insertion of meaning in a previous nova carta de atenas 2003 discourse. The beginning of the process can be found in the annual representation of Miguel de Cervantes' Entremeses by Prof.

After almost two decades, this eventually gained relevance and eventually led to the creation of a major annual festival in Guanajuato.


This happened in when the first edition of the Festival Internacional Cervantino was celebrated. Later, the festival occupied all possible spaces in the city. An urban survey showed that due to this theming strategy, the center of Guanajuato is full of references to Cervantes and his literary characters.


There is a museum devoted to different iconographic representations of the Quijote.