Pages in category "Social class in India". The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation. Caste away: smashing India's social class system. This week's edition of our Upside solutions journalism project found small efforts that could.


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It is referred to frequently in the ancient Indian texts.

There are four varnas but thousands of jatis. This view has been disputed by other scholars, who believe it to social class in india a secular social phenomenon driven by the necessities of economics, politics, and sometimes also geography.

Caste The term caste is not originally an Indian word, though it is now widely used, both in English and in Indian languages.

Characteristics features of Social Class in India

According to the Oxford English Dictionaryit is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning "race, lineage, breed" and, originally, "'pure or unmixed stock or breed ".

Ghurye wrote in that, despite much study by many people, we do not possess social class in india real general definition of caste. It appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because social class in india the complexity of the phenomenon. On the other hand, much literature on the subject is marred by lack of precision about the use of the term.

His model definition for caste included the following six characteristics, [32] Segmentation of society into groups whose membership was determined by birth [33] A hierarchical system wherein social class in india the Brahmins were at the head of the hierarchy, but this hierarchy was disputed in some cases.

In various linguistic areas, hundreds of castes had a gradation generally acknowledged by everyone [34] Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse, with minute rules on the kind of food and drink that upper castes could accept from lower castes.

There was a great diversity in these rules, and lower castes generally accepted food from upper castes [35] Segregation, where individual castes lived together, the dominant caste living in the center and social class in india castes living on the periphery.

This characteristic of caste was missing from large parts of India, stated Social class in india, and in these regions all four castes Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras did agriculture labour or became warriors in large numbers [39] Endogamyrestrictions on marrying a person outside caste, but in some situations hypergamy allowed.

India - Caste and Class

Risley[45] and for fitting his definition to then prevalent colonial orientalist perspectives social class in india caste. For example, for some early European documenters it was thought to correspond with the endogamous varnas referred to in ancient Social class in india scripts, and its meaning corresponds in the sense of estates.

To later Europeans of the Raj era it was endogamous jatis, rather than varnas, that represented caste, such as the jatis that colonial administrators classified by occupation in the early 20th century. The name stuck and became the usual word for the Hindu social group.

In attempting to account for the remarkable proliferation of castes in 18th- and 19th-century India, authorities credulously accepted the traditional view that by a process of intermarriage and subdivision the 3, or more castes of modern India had evolved from the four primitive classes, and the term 'caste' was applied indiscriminately to both varna or class, and jati or caste proper.


This is a false terminology; castes social class in india and fall in the social scale, and old castes die out and new ones are formed, but the four great classes are stable.

There are never more or less than four and for over 2, years their order of precedence has not altered.


social class in india Varna represents a closed collection of social orders whereas jati is entirely open-ended, thought of as a "natural kind whose members share a common substance.

Thus, "Caste" is not an accurate representation of jati in English.

Caste system in India

Better terms would be ethnicity, ethnic identity and ethnic group. Flexibility Social class in india Anne Waldrop observes that while outsiders view the term caste as a static phenomenon of stereotypical tradition-bound India, empirical facts suggest caste has been a radically changing feature.

The term means different things to different Indians. In the context of politically active modern India, where job and school quotas are reserved for affirmative action based on castes, the term social class in india become a sensitive and controversial subject.

Srinivas and Damle have debated the question of rigidity in caste and believe that there is considerable flexibility and mobility in the caste hierarchies.


Perspectives There are at least two perspectives for the origins of the caste system in ancient and medieval India, which focus on either ideological factors or on socio-economic social class in india. The first school focuses on the ideological factors which are claimed to drive the caste system and holds that caste is rooted in the four varnas.


This perspective was particularly common among scholars of the British colonial era and was articulated by Dumont, who concluded that the system was ideologically perfected several thousand years ago and has remained the primary social reality social class in india since.