How does the cell convert DNA into working proteins? The process of translation can be seen as the decoding of instructions for making proteins, involving. Translation is the RNA directed synthesis of polypeptides. This process requires all three classes of RNA. Although the chemistry of peptide. New translate tool, please test! Use the ExPASy Translate is a tool which allows the translation of a nucleotide (DNA/RNA) sequence to a protein sequence.


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Overview of translation (article) | Khan Academy

In prokaryotes these are designated EFs and in eukaryotes, eEFs. Elongation of polypeptides occurs translation of proteins a cyclic manner such that at the end of one complete round of amino acid addition the A site will be empty and ready to accept the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA dictated by the next codon of the mRNA.

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This means that not only does translation of proteins incoming amino acid need to be attached to the peptide chain but the ribosome must move down the mRNA to the next codon.

This reaction is catalyzed by peptidyltransferase activity which resides in what is termed the peptidyltransferase center PTC of the large ribosomal subunit 60S subunit.

Translation (biology)

This enzymatic process is termed transpeptidation. This enzymatic activity is not mediated by any ribosomal proteins but instead translation of proteins the large ribosomal RNA 28S contained in the 60S subunit. This RNA encoded enzymatic activity is referred to as a ribozyme.


The elongated peptide now resides on a tRNA in the A site. The A site needs translation of proteins be freed in order to accept the next aminoacyl-tRNA. Following translocation eEF-2 is released from the ribosome.

The cycle can now begin again.

Translation of Proteins

The ability of eEF-2 to carry out translocation is regulated by the state of phosphorylation of the enzyme, when phosphorylated the enzyme is inhibited. Translation of proteins of translation elongation. Following initiation, the process of translation involves a continuing series of elongation steps.


Each step comprises movement of the mRNA through the ribosome so that the tRNA carrying the elongating polypeptide resides within a pocket of the 60S subunit termed the P-site for peptide site. The peptide in the P-site is transferred to the amino acid in the A-site through the action of the ribozyme activity known as peptidyltransferase.

Following peptide transfer the elongation factor eEF-2 induces translocation of the ribosome along the mRNA such that the naked tRNA is temporarily within the E-site for ejection site of the 60S ribosome translation of proteins the peptidyl-tRNA is moved to the P-site leaving the A-site empty and residing over the next translation of proteins of the mRNA.

The process continues until a stop codon is encountered. There are 2 RFs in E.

Translation (biology) - Wikipedia

translation of proteins The signals for termination are the same in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Translation of proteins signals are termination codons present in the mRNA. Steps of translation termination.

Translation termination occurs when a stop codon is encountered within the context of the A-site of the 60S subunit. The anti-association factors then promote dissociation of the two ribosomal subunits and the process can begin anew. The binding of eRF to the ribosome stimulates the peptidyltransferase activity to transfer the peptidyl group to water instead of an aminoacyl-tRNA.